GK in pdf

Gk in Pdf

Vitamins and their deficiency diseases

List of vitamins and their deficiency diseases in pdf . It included fat soluble and water soluble vitamins  with their source and their deficiency diseases for competitive exam like ssc, psc wbcs, railway, esic,lic,bank and other competitive exam.


Vitamins
Vitamins were fist discovered by F.G Hopkins. However the term vitamins was coined by C. Funk.
Vitamins are divided into two groups
* Fat soluble Vitamin - A, D, E, and K.
* Water soluble Vitamins - B and C.

vitamins build blocks that keep the body running. Vitamins are organic compounds we need to ingest in small amounts to keep our body functioning. They're the body's builders, defenders and maintenance workers, help to build muscle and bone, make use of nutrients, capture and use energy and heal wounds. The most essential nutrients needed by our body are, Vitamin A, C, D, E, K and a group of B complex vitamins. If you need convincing approximately nutrition value, just consider the plight of olden day sailors, who had no access to vitamin-rich fresh produce. They got scurvy. But vitamin C, abundant in fruits and vegetables, was the simple remedy to this disorder. While bacteria, fungi and plants produce their own vitamins, our bodies cannot, so we should get them from other resources. So how does the body get vitamins from out there into here? That's dependent on the form these compounds take. Vitamins come in two types: lipid-soluble and water-soluble, and the difference between them determines how the body transports and stores vitamins, and receives rid of the excess. The water-solubles are vitamin C and B Complex vitamins that are made up of eight different types that each do something unique. These are dissolved in the watery parts of fruits, vegetables and grains, meaning their passage through the body is relatively straightforward. Once inside the system, these foods are digested and the vitamins within them are taken up directly by the bloodstream. Because blood plasma is water-based, water-soluble vitamins C and B have their transport cut out for them and can move around freely within the body. For lipid-soluble vitamins, dissolved in fat and found in foods like diary, butter and oils, this trip into the blood is a little more adventurous. These vitamins make it through the stomach and the intestine, where an acidic substance called bile flows in from the liver, breaking up the fat and preparing it for absorption through the intestinal wall. Because fat-soluble vitamins can't make use of the blood's watery nature, they need something else to move them around, and that comes from proteins that attach to the vitamins and act like couriers, transporting fat-solubles into the blood and around the body. So, this difference between water- or fat-soluble vitamins determines how they get into the blood, but also how they're stored or rejected from the body. The system's ability to circulate water-soluble vitamins in the bloodstream so easily means that most of them can be passed out equally easily via the kidneys. Because of that, most water-soluble vitamins need to be replenished on a daily basis through the food we eat. But fat-soluble vitamins have staying power because they can be packed into the liver and in fat cells. The body treats these parts like a pantry, storing the vitamins there and rationing them out when needed, meaning we shouldn't overload on this type of vitamin because the body is generally well stocked. Once we figured the logistics of transport and storage, the vitamins are left to do the work they came here to do within the first place.

Types of vitamins
Some, like many of the B Complex vitamins, make up coenzymes, whose job it is to help enzymes release the energy from food.B complex vitamins are essential for healthy functioning Of our brain and nervous system. Other B vitamins then help the body to use that energy. From vitamin C, you get the ability to fight infection and make collagen, a kind of tissue that forms bones and teeth and heals wounds. Vitamin A helps make white blood cells, key in the body's defense, helps shape bones and improves vision by keeping the cells of the eye in check.Vitamin A is required to make a pigment called Rhodopsin in our eyes. Rhodopsin helps us to see in low light conditions. Thus, without vitamin A, rhodopsin won't be produced, causing night-blindness. Vitamin D synthesized in our skin by the action of ultraviolet rays of the sunlight. Vitamin D gathers calcium and phosphorus so we can make bones,thus, lack of vitamin D can lead to a condition called rickets. Which is characterized by weak, soft bones. Vitamin E works as an antioxidant, getting rid of elements in the body that can damage cells. During an injury, vitamin K helps the blood clot. Thus preventing excessive bleeding. Without this vitamin variety, humans face deficiencies that cause a range of problems, like fatigue, nerve damage, heart disorders, or diseases like rickets and scurvy.
On the other hand, takeing too much of any vitamin can cause toxicity in the body, so there goes the myth that loading yourself with supplements is a great idea. In reality, A fixed quantity of vitamins is required for the normal functioning of our body cells. Their deficiency and excess (for fat soluble vitamins only) both causes different diseases in our body . However excreted though urine.


Vitamins and their Deficiency Diseases , and Rich Food Sources
Vitamins Chemical Name Deficiency Diseases Sources
Vitamin- A Ratinol, Carotenoids Night-blindness(Nyctalopia) Hyperkeratosis,Keatomalacia Oranges, green vegetables,carots,squash,Pumpking and spinach
Vitamin- D Calciferol Rickets and osteomalacia Fish, eggs, liver and mushooms
Vitamin- E Tocopherols tocotrienols Infertility Many fruits and vegetable s, cereal product
Vitamin- K Phylloquinone Non- cloting of blood Green vegetables
Vitamin- B1 Thiamine Beribeis, Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome Oatmeal, rice,vegetable, Cauliflower,potatoes,liver And eggs
Vitamin- B2 Riboflavin Cracking of skin, eddish eye, Cracking og tongue Dairy products ,bananas,popcorn and green beans
Vitamin- B3 Niacin or nicotinic Pellagera,glossitin Meat, broccoli,avocados
Vitamin-B5 Pentothenic acid Premature graying of hair(Achromotrichia),Burning feet syndrome Meat,fish,eggs,many vegetables,mushrooms and tree nuts
Vitamin- B6 Pyridoxine Abnormal protein metabollsm Meat,vegetables, tree nuts and bananas
Vitamin- B7 Biotin Dermatitis,enteritis and anemia Raw egg yolk liver,peanuts and vegetables
Vitamin- B9 Folic acid, folinic acid Megaloblastic anemia and birth defects Leafy vegetables, pasta,bread,cereal and liver
Vitamin- B12 Cyanocobalamin Pernicious anemia Meat and other animal products
Vitamin- C Ascorbic acid Scurvy(sailers disease) Peppers,citrus fruiits and sprouts



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